Civ-100 Assignments Afi

The film opens with the following statement: "In recent years, the Arctic region has been the scene of biological catastrophe. The great caribou herds that only a few years ago numbered in the millions have all but vanished. A Government agency orders a biological report be prepared that would scientifically justify extermination of the suspected culprit--a creature known from story, myth and legend as a ferocious killer, Canis lupis --the wolf. Because of the extreme difficulties involved, no scientist had ever actually observed wolves in the act of attacking and killing caribou. So the major task of "The Lupine Project" was for someone to travel to the Arctic, track down a pack of wolves and observe this behavior in detail."
       The film concludes with the following statement: "'I think over again my small adventures. My fears. Those small ones that seemed so big. For all the vital things I had to get and to reach. And yet there is only one great thing. The only thing. To live to see the great day that dawns and the light that fills the world.'— Old Inuit song."
       End credits include the following statements: "Domestic animals by North American Guard Dog and Kenneling Service Ltd., trained by H. J. McCullough"; "Special thanks to The People of Atlin, British Columbia; the Fraternal Order of the Eagles and the Red Onion, Skagway, Alaska; The Museum of Natural History, New York City; The Zoology Department, University of California, Berkeley; Brown, Farris & Associates, Vancouver, British Columbia; Robert Hughes for additional music."
       The 16 Sep 1969 HR announced Jack Couffer as director, and Millard Kauffman as screenwriter, for the film adaptation of Farley Mowat’s non-fiction adventure story, Never Cry Wolf, to be produced by Warner Bros. Pictures. The project remained in limbo for more than three years. On 14 Feb 1974, Var identified Lewis Allen and Joseph Strick as the film’s producers, and the screenwriters as Jay Presson Allen and Curtis Hanson. Principal photography was to begin Jul 1974 in Canada. No further news appeared on the production until 4 Jul 1979, when Var reported that Louis Malle would begin directing the film in Aug 1979, in Canada’s Yukon Territory and Atlin, British Columbia. Months later, the 14 Feb 1980 DV heralded Never Cry Wolf as the first independent production to be released by the Walt Disney Company, with Strick and Allen continuing as producers, and Allen’s wife, Jay Presson Allen, providing the screenplay, although her name does not appear in onscreen credits. According to the 3 Mar 1980 DV, Never Cry Wolf marked Disney’s first agreement with an outside production group, the first time the director’s name would appear before a Disney title, and the first time a director, or any creative, would receive a percentage of profits, or “points," on a Disney project. An article in the Oct 1983 Marquee stated that director Carroll Ballard was chosen by Disney chairman Ron Miller, based on the his work on The Black Stallion (1979, see entry). The $4.8 million production was scheduled to begin principal photography between mid-Apr and May 1980 in the Yukon Territory. On 14 May 1980, DV stated that principal photography would begin 19 May 1980 in the Canadian Yukon, and relocate to Nome, Alaska, in early Jun 1980. The budget increased to $8 million, and actor Charles Martin Smith was cast in the lead role. One month later, the 14 Jun 1980 HR noted that cinematographer Alan Gornick was traveling to Whitehorse, Canada, and Skagway, AK, to film an underwater sequence, accompanied by assistant cameraman Kim Guthrie and gaffer Rick Mansfield, none of whom were listed in onscreen credits.
       According to production notes in AMPAS library files, the production was completed over a two-year period, and proved to be an “endurance test” for Charles Martin Smith. As the lone actor during much of the principal photography, Smith admitted to losing his mind on occasion. Half of the crewmembers left after the first week. Smith and the remaining crew were plagued by extreme cold in the winter, and swarms of mosquitoes and black flies in summer. Illness spread through the company, with both Smith and Ballard contracting pneumonia. Production was nearly halted by an actors’ strike, but the company was granted a waiver by the Screen Actors Guild, and allowed to continue filming through the summer. Despite the hardships, Smith maintained his enthusiasm for the project, particularly when working with Inuit actors Zachary Ittimangnaq and Samson Jorah, and author Farley Mowat. Smith told the 25 Oct 1983 LAHExam that Ballard selected him for the role of “Tyler” based on his performance in More American Graffiti (1979, see entry). Upon receiving the offer, Smith broke his contract with a television series in development, and began nine months of work on the film, which was spread over an eighteen-month period. He insisted on doing much of his own stunt work, which included falling through three feet of ice into a lake, being sprayed with ice water in a simulated blizzard, and running naked in forty-degree weather in a herd of caribou. Ballard disapproved of the screenplay, and preferred to develop the narrative during the course of production, aided by Smith and other members of the company.
       As reported in the 9 Oct 1983 NYT, Ballard cast author Farley Mowat in a minor role as a bartender. Mowat was instructed to consume half a bottle of beer in one swallow and speak his line. After twenty-four failed takes, Mowat succeeded only in becoming intoxicated, and Ballard deleted the scene. Mowat was reportedly pleased with the completed film, and defended Ballard’s recasting of the character, “Rosie,” as a villain, citing the necessity of concentrating “all the adverse qualities of human beings into one person” to demonstrate the predatory nature of mankind. The production required ten trained wolves, one of which had to be taught to lift his leg when urinating, which was accomplished after fifty-seven takes. Five hundred caribou were assembled on the tundra, along with the trained wolves, for a scene that was completed over three weeks. Ballard described the creation of the sequence as a “big disaster” in the 24 Oct 1983 LAT. He rented the herd from “reindeer barons” in Nome, AK, who supplied caribou antlers to a Korean company that marketed the antler fuzz as an aphrodisiac. Filming needed to begin by 1 Jun 1980, when the spring thaw was complete, and end within two weeks, when the Koreans arrived to collect the antlers. Production was halted due to ten consecutive days of rain, followed by a heavy fog that impaired visibility. The crew attempted to corner the caribou on an island, but were thwarted when the animals swam away. Ballard was forced to wait until Jun 1981 to complete the scene.
       Inuit actors were acquired through casting calls via radio. Zachary Ittimangnaq, who played “Ooteck,” had already appeared in a Canadian documentary on Inuit traditions, while the inexperienced Samsom Jorah, a tractor mechanic, had difficulty reading his lines. However, Ballard believed Jorah’s portrayal of “Mike” embodied the theme of the film, which he indentified as “the loss of wildness.”
       The cost of the picture at the time of the article had reached $10.5 million, including fees for two discarded musical scores. Ballard called it “a little movie” in terms of the subject matter, although he devoted three years of his life to completing it. The director shot as much location footage as possible, then spent another eighteen months editing, according to LAHExam . After screening a three-hour-thirty-minute version for Disney executives, Ballard commissioned Smith to write narration, which proved to be a greater challenge than the actor imagined, taking far longer than the projected four weeks. Two unsuccessful screenings in Seattle, WA, and San Francisco, CA, were followed by further edits. The final edit was completed in early 1983 and was positively received by a test audience in AZ. The review in the 7 Oct 1983 HR stated that a sequence depicting the “wholesale slaughter of wolves” by a hunting party was deleted because it was considered too gruesome for younger audience members.
       On 28 Jan 1983, HR reported that the film would likely be released late in the year. Disney originally planned a Nov 1982 release, and blamed the postponement on continued delays in editing and postproduction. Never Cry Wolf debuted at the Venice Film Festival in Sep 1983, where it competed for best film, and for best film by a new director, as noted in the 22 Aug 1983 DV. The picture’s North American premiere was held on 6 Oct 1983 at the Famous Players Uptown theater in Toronto, Canada, as noted in the 11 Oct 1983 HR . Mowat, Charles Martin Smith, and Disney president Richard Berger were in attendance. The 5 Oct 1983 Var announced the picture’s 18 Oct 1983 U.S. debut at New York City’s Gemini Theater. Proceeds benefited the Sierra Club.
       Articles in the 7 Nov 1983 LAT and the 8 Nov 1983 DV reported a dispute between Disney and the Mann Theatres chain, following an alleged breach of promise concerning the film’s opening at the Regent Theatre in the Westwood district of Los Angeles. Never Cry Wolf was expected to play from 21 Oct through 8 Dec 1983, but closed after only two weeks in deference to Paramount Pictures Corp., which opened its production, Testament (1983, see entry), on 4 Dec 1983 at the Regent, despite assurances to the contrary from theater chain president Larry Gleason to Charles Good, president of Buena Vista Distribution. Mann film buyer James Sheehan attributed the cancellation to coercion by Paramount, which released more than ninety-five percent of its pictures through the chain. Paramount denied the allegation. Although Mann offered Buena Vista another Westwood venue with 100 additional seats, Good felt the cancellation was detrimental to the picture’s reputation. Buena Vista moved the film to the nearby Avco Theatre, while Mann erroneously advertised the continued engagement at the larger theater. A temporary restraining order was filed by the distributor to prevent Mann from playing the film in another venue, but the theater chain’s attorneys stated that no closing date was ever confirmed with Buena Vista, and a judge ruled on Mann’s behalf.
       The 13 Feb 1984 NYT estimated the total cost of the production at $13.2 million. Disney’s Tom Wilhite described the target demographic as “urban professionals,” aged twenty-five to forty, who would be attracted to the concept of escaping civilization for the wilderness. Advertisements depicted Smith “as a solitary figure surrounded by ice,” to indicate that the film was not another of Disney’s wildlife documentaries. The studio opened Never Cry Wolf at one theater each in five major cities between Oct and mid-Nov 1983, followed by two-month engagements at fewer than forty theaters “to allow word-of-mouth and good reviews to build.” At the time of the article, the film was playing in 500 theaters with earnings of approximately $16.6 million, and projected earnings of up to $30 million.
       The 27 Jun 1984 Var reported that Never Cry Wolf won the National Cowboy Hall of Fame’s Western Heritage Award for best theatrical film.MoreLess

Daily Variety

14 Feb 1980.

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Daily Variety

3 Mar 1980

p. 1, 12.

Daily Variety

14 May 1980.

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Daily Variety

22 Aug 1983.

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Daily Variety

8 Nov 1983

p.1, 11.

Hollywood Reporter

16 Sep 1969.

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Hollywood Reporter

14 Jun 1980.

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Hollywood Reporter

19 Jun 1981.

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Hollywood Reporter

28 Jan 1983.

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Hollywood Reporter

7 Oct 1983

p. 3, 29.

Hollywood Reporter

11 Oct 1983.

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Hollywood Reporter

5 Dec 1983.

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LAHExam

25 Oct 1983

Section C, p. 1, 4.

Los Angeles Times

5 Mar 1980.

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Los Angeles Times

20 Oct 1983

p. 1.

Los Angeles Times

24 Oct 1983

Part Vi, p. 1, 4.

Los Angeles Times

7 Nov 1983

Part Vi, p. 1, 4.

New York Times

9 Oct 1983

p. 1, 21.

New York Times

14 Oct 1983

p. 8.

New York Times

13 Feb 1984

p. C14.

Variety

7 Sep 1983

p. 24.

Only Steve McQueen’s and Dustin Hoffman’s credits and the title card appear at the beginning of the film; all of the other credits appear at the end of the picture. Throughout the sequence in which “Henri ‘Papillon’ Charrière” is living with the Indian tribe in Colombia, there is no dialogue, only music and natural sounds. According to a modern source, the end voice-over narration, which describes how Charrière’s escape attempt was successful and he lived the rest of his life a free man, was supplied by director Franklin J. Schaffner.
       Henri “Papillon” Charrière (1906—1973), a petty criminal and safe-cracker, was convicted in Paris in 1931 for the murder of a pimp. Although Charrière always maintained that he was framed for the crime, he was sentenced to life imprisonment in the penal colony of French Guiana. In 1933, Charrière made his first major escape attempt, during which he and fellow prisoners Clousiot (spelled Clusiot in the film) and Maturette reached Colombia. Although in the film Charrière’s stay with the Colombian Indians, known as the Guajira tribe, appeared to be brief, in reality he stayed with them for seven months, during which time he impregnated two wives. After leaving the village, Charrière was turned in to the police by a nun and was returned to French Guiana, where he spent two years in solitary confinement. Charrière made numerous other escape attempts, as a result of which he was sentenced to another eight years in solitary confinement, although he served only nineteen months because, during a brief exercise period, he attempted to save a guard’s daughter from drowning.
       Eventually Charrière was moved to Devil’s Island, from which he escaped in 1944. When he reached Venezuela, he was imprisoned until his release in 1945. He then moved to Caracas, married and had children. Upon the success of the autobiographical novels of former French prisoner Albertine Sarrazin, Charrière decided to write his memoirs, which were also a condemnation of the French penal system. Although great controversy was generated when the book’s veracity was called into question by several sources, Charrière maintained that it was largely true, adding that he did not enter prison “with a typewriter.” The notorious penal colony of French Guiana, which was established by Emperor Napoleon III in 1852, was closed by the French government in 1952. In Oct 1970, the French Minister of Justice issued a “decree of grace,” which allowed Charrière to visit Paris. According to a 28 Jan 1970 Var article, his popular book appeared as a comic strip in the daily France Soir newspaper. Charrière’s follow-up to Papillon , entitled Banco , detailed his adventures upon his release from the Venezuelan prison and was published posthumously in 1973. Charrière also co-wrote and co-starred in the 1971 film Popsy Pop .
       As noted by contemporary sources, the film diverged significantly from Charrière’s best-selling autobiography. As widely reported, the most major difference was in the character of “Louis Dega,” who in the book is a very minor character and did not accompany Charrière on any of his escape attempts. The role of Dega in the film was enlarged specifically to attract Dustin Hoffman, according to numerous reports. The duration and events of Charrière’s first escape attempt, during which he sailed to Colombia, were shortened and streamlined for the film, with numerous characters being eliminated. In the book, Charrière noted that he was accompanied on his final escape from Devil’s Island by a fellow convict named Sylvain, but the man was killed while trying to reach the shore.
       In Nov 1969, Var reported that French publisher Robert Laffont was in charge of selling the book’s film rights and wanted to be associated with the production, which he hoped would be in both English and French. According to the article, the front-runners for the rights were Joseph Levine’s Avco Embassy Pictures and Walter Reade’s Continental Distributing, Inc., although bids from M-G-M and “several big French producers” had been received. According to Jan and Apr 1970 news items, after the rights to the book were purchased by Reade for $550,000, Roman Polanski was set to direct, with Warren Beatty to star, and Laffont was to be Reade’s producing partner. Although most news items of the time reported only on Polanski’s potential involvement, a 28 Jan 1970 Var item reported that Arthur Penn was also interested in directing the project.
       After Reade’s financing fell through, the rights to the book were sold to Robert Dorfmann for $600,000, according to a 2 Jun 1970 HR news item, with Laffont to co-produce. Various news items note that Richard Davis, who was a friend of Dorfmann, was involved with the original Reade deal, and that when it was not realized, he helped to arrange the sale of the rights to Dorfmann. Numerous contemporary sources note that Davis was to be the co-producer or executive producer, and that Dorfmann was representing Les Films Corona. In mid-Jun 1970, Terence Young was being considered to direct, with Charles Bronson mentioned as a possibility to star.
       In Oct 1972, DV announced that the production company was Ted Richmond Productions. An 11 Mar 1971 LAT news item reporting that Steve McQueen had been cast stated that the picture would be a production of First Artists Company, the production company in which McQueen was partnered with Paul Newman, Sidney Poitier, Barbara Streisand and Hoffman. The onscreen credits, copyright and information submitted by the studios to AMPAS list only Papillon Partnership, Allied Artists (AA) and Corona/General Productions as involved companies, however. In Mar 1972, it was announced that AA had obtained U.S. and Canadian theatrical and television distribution rights to the film in exchange for supplying $7,000,000 of the film’s approximately $14,000,000 budget. Several other news items list a variation of the company name Walter Heller & Co. as the “factoring” company that loaned the money to AA. According to a 24 Feb 1974 DV article, Giulio Sbarigia was a “minority 10% partner” in the film, but his participation in the film’s financing has not been confirmed by any other contemporary source.
       According to a 3 Mar 1972 HR news item, William Goldman had completed a first draft screenplay and was “going over” it with director Schaffner. In a Jan 1974 interview with HR , Schaffner asserted that among the film’s many preproduction challenges was finishing the script, and that only sixty-three pages of the screenplay were completed when production began in Feb 1973. According to Schaffner, Goldman wrote “a very good, fairly faithful script from the book and had to go on to another picture. Lorenzo Semple refined what we wanted to do and also had another commitment. [Dalton] Trumbo came aboard when Dustin Hoffman was signed.” A 20 Jul 1972 LAT news item related that because McQueen supposedly “objected to the allusions to homosexuality (among prisoners)” in Goldman’s original script, Semple was brought in by Dorfmann to do a rewrite. Semple denied the allegations, however, stating that he was brought in simply because Goldman had moved on to another project. In modern interviews, Goldman stated that only one line of his work remained in the completed film.
       Studio publicity confirmed that Trumbo enlarged the Dega character and was present during filming in order to complete the unfinished script. According to modern sources, after Trumbo was diagnosed with lung cancer during production, his son, Christopher Trumbo, worked uncredited on the screenplay. In the HR interview, Schaffner stated that because the film was shot in sequence, it was easier to deal with not having a completed screenplay, and other contemporary sources confirm that the picture was shot primarily in sequence. According to modern sources, shooting in sequence escalated the film’s budget, as all of the actors had to be retained on location throughout production. Although a 4 Jan 1974 LAT interview with Schaffner reported that David Newman and Robert Benton also worked on the screenplay, modern sources state that their work was discarded.
       Although HR production charts included Fred Brookfield and Dar Robinson in the cast, their appearance in the completed film has not been confirmed. A modern source stated that Robinson was the stuntman who performed the leap into the ocean at the end of the film, and that the stunt was filmed on the island of Maui, HI. Modern sources included Peter Brocco, Billy M. Greene, Fred Lerner, Harry Monty and Ellen Moss in the cast. Schaffner, who had directed many films previously, including the 1970 Oscar-winning Patton , made his debut as a producer with Papillon . As noted by studio publicity, Hoffman’s then-wife, Anne Byrne Hoffman, made her screen debut in the picture in the role of Dega’s wife. Papillon marked the only feature-film appearance of television actress Ratna Assan, who plays “Zoraima.” Papillon was the last screenplay written by the prolific, controversial Trumbo, who appears in the film briefly as the commandant of the prison at St.-Martin-de-Re. For more information about Trumbo, one of the “Hollywood Ten,” see the entries above for the 1971 Cinemation Industries release Johnny Got His Gun and the 1947 RKO film Crossfire .
       According to the 3 Mar 1972 HR news item, Papillon would be shot in Central America and the British West Indies, with all interior filming to be done in Hollywood. Other news items listed Guatemala, Venezuela, Barbados, the Bahamas, the Yucatan Peninsula, Nicaragua and French Guiana as potential location sites. As noted by contemporary sources, however, the picture was shot on location in Spain and Jamaica. According to studio publicity, Charrière visited the set in Jamaica, and the 2005 DVD release of the picture included a documentary, shot at the time of the film’s production, in which Charrière toured the prison sets and commented on their authenticity.
       Studio publicity indicated that the production design team spent more than a year researching and building the prison sets, which were over 800 feet long and located in the Jamaican town of Falmouth. Also, the extras portraying the 600 French prisoners were recruited from a colony of German farmers who had emigrated to Jamaica years earlier. Over 1,000 extras were used in the scenes of the prisoners marching to the prison ship, which actually was a Caribbean cargo vessel. The seaside sequences, set in France, were shot in Fuenterrabia, Spain, according to press notes. Studio interiors were shot in Montego Bay, Jamaica, where the production company was headquartered, and other Jamaican location sites included Ocho Rios, Kingston and Paradise Jungle Park in the town of Savannah-La-Mar. According to modern sources, for the sequences in which the prisoners hunt the rare blue Morphous butterflies, 2,500 butterflies were imported from South America. Although HR production charts included Paris as a location site, no filming was done there.
       A 24 Apr 1973 DV article indicated that some filming may have been done in Hollywood, and a 27 Jun 1973 DV item added that post-production was done at the Samuel Goldwyn Studios. Modern sources note that William Tuttle, Allan Snyder, Robert N. Norin and Monte Westmore were part of the makeup crew, and that Kent James served as a costumer. Studio publicity related that due to the extremely thick lenses in the glasses he wore, Hoffman was obliged to wear specially made contact lenses to balance out the magnification and enable him to see.
       The picture's budget—reportedly the largest of any film made that year—was widely commented upon during its production, especially as it was far more than the net worth of AA at the time. According to contemporary sources, AA’s future relied upon the film’s success, as its controversial, $7,000,000 investment in Papillon represented the company’s most expensive co-production to that date. DV reported in mid-Nov 1973 that AA was going to spend approximately $2,000,000 on advertising the picture. With the film’s great financial success, AA’s investment was repaid, and Papillon became the highest grossing film in the company’s history, with approximately $38,000,000 in North American grosses by Jun 1974, according to a DV item that also noted that the picture was in profit within six weeks of its release. A Jan 1974 LAT article reported that McQueen received $2,000,000 for his role, with Hoffman being paid $1,250,000 and Schaffner $750,000. According to modern biographies of McQueen, he was the first actor to receive $2,000,000 “upfront” for one film.
       According to a 29 Nov 1973 HR news item, the picture was originally rated R but was re-rated PG after an appeal by AA. A 16 Jul 1973 DV news item reported that on European prints, the film would be listed as a “Schaffner-Dorfmann” production, while for U.S. prints, the order would be reversed. Although the viewed print contained the statement “A Franklin J. Schaffner Film,” in the onscreen credits, the producers are listed as “Produced by Robert Dorfmann and Franklin J. Schaffner.”
       The film’s 18 Dec 1973 Los Angeles premiere was a benefit for the Western Institute for Cancer and Leukemia Research, according to a DV news item, with the funds to go to the Salk Institute. An earlier DV news item noted that several premieres for the film would be benefits for cancer research, in tribute to both Charrière and Trumbo. In Jan 1974, DV reported that Engelbert Humperdinck had recorded a vocal version of “Free as the Wind,” an instrumental theme from the theme written by Jerry Goldsmith.
       Papillon generated mixed reviews from critics, with many disappointed in the film’s lengthy, episodic structure and lack of depth in the characterizations. McQueen’s and Hoffman’s acting was generally singled out for praise, with several reviewers calling McQueen’s work the finest of his career thus far, and Judith Crist of New York magazine calling Hoffman’s portrayal “witty and beautifully restrained.” The picture received an Academy Award nomination for Music (Original Dramatic Score), and McQueen was nominated for a Golden Globe for Best Motion Picture Actor--Drama.
       The film became the object of a number of lawsuits, including one filed by McQueen and another filed by Hoffman, both of whom asserted that they had not received their correct share of the film’s profits. According to a 5 May 1976 DV item announcing Hoffman’s suit, Hoffman had been contracted to receive five percent of the film’s net profits above $14,000,000. The outcomes of the suits filed by the actors have not been ascertained.
       Several other well-publicized lawsuits concerned the sale of Papillon for broadcast on television. AA and producers Dorfmann and Richmond clashed over who controlled the rights, with AA tentatively making a deal with ABC in Aug 1974. That deal, which included seven other titles, was for over $9,000,000, according to contemporary sources, but the sale was not finalized due to continuing litigation, and the producers attempted to sell the property to CBS. Both AA and the producers were involved in breach-of-contract suits against each other and against ABC and CBS. In Aug 1976, DV reported that the broadcast rights had been purchased by CBS for almost $4,000,000, although the film could not be shown on TV until Dec 1978, due to a clause in McQueen’s original contract. On 9 Nov 1978, a DV article related that CBS had already broadcast Papillon twice, but that the legal wrangling continued, with several parties arguing over who was to receive the profits. The final conclusions of the television suits have not been confirmed.
       Although a 16 May 2000 HR news item announced that the picture would be re-made as a four-hour television miniseries by Alliance Atlantis, with Pierre Rochat serving as producer, that project was not realized.MoreLess

Box Office

24 Dec 1973.

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Box Office

14 Jan 1974

p. 4655.

Daily Variety

5 Nov 1971.

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Daily Variety

18 Oct 1972.

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Daily Variety

14 Mar 1973

p. 1, 26.

Daily Variety

24 Apr 1973.

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Daily Variety

6 Jun 1973.

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Daily Variety

27 Jun 1973.

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Daily Variety

16 Jul 1973.

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Daily Variety

31 Jul 1973.

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Daily Variety

7 Sep 1973.

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Daily Variety

15 Oct 1973.

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Daily Variety

15 Nov 1973.

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Daily Variety

11 Dec 1973

p. 2, 12.

Daily Variety

12 Dec 1973.

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Daily Variety

28 Jan 1974.

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Daily Variety

24 Feb 1974

p. 5.

Daily Variety

26 Jun 1974

p. 4.

Daily Variety

30 Aug 1974

p. 1, 8.

Daily Variety

17 Sep 1974

p. 1, 7.

Daily Variety

12 Dec 1974

p. 1, 14.

Daily Variety

5 May 1976.

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Daily Variety

27 Aug 1976

p. 1, 13.

Daily Variety

9 Nov 1978

p. 2.

Films and Filming

Apr 1974.

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Hollywood Reporter

22 Jan 1970.

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Hollywood Reporter

2 Jun 1970.

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Hollywood Reporter

12 Jan 1972.

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Hollywood Reporter

4 Feb 1972.

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Hollywood Reporter

3 Mar 1972.

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Hollywood Reporter

14 Feb 1973.

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Hollywood Reporter

14 Mar 1973.

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Hollywood Reporter

30 Mar 1973

p. 22.

Hollywood Reporter

20 Apr 1973

p. 16.

Hollywood Reporter

7 Jun 1973.

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Hollywood Reporter

22 Jun 1973

p. 10.

Hollywood Reporter

21 Sep 1973.

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Hollywood Reporter

18 Oct 1973.

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Hollywood Reporter

29 Nov 1973.

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Hollywood Reporter

11 Dec 1973

p. 3, 10.

Hollywood Reporter

27 Dec 1973.

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Hollywood Reporter

29 Jan 1974

p. 3, 22.

Hollywood Reporter

25 Mar 1975.

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Hollywood Reporter

16 May 2000.

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Los Angeles Herald Examiner

23 Jan 1973

Section B, p. 3.

Los Angeles Herald Examiner

18 Dec 1973.

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Los Angeles Times

8 Oct 1970

Section F, p. 15.

Los Angeles Times

11 Oct 1970

Section Q, p. 50.

Los Angeles Times

25 Oct 1970.

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Los Angeles Times

11 Mar 1971

Section IV, p. 10.

Los Angeles Times

20 Jul 1972

Section G, p. 17.

Los Angeles Times

29 Jun 1973

Section H, p. 20.

Los Angeles Times

19 Dec 1973

Section IV, p. 1, 26.

Los Angeles Times

4 Jan 1974

Section D, pp. 16-17.

Motion Picture Herald Product Digest

26 Dec 1973.

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New Republic

19 Jan 1974.

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New York

24 Dec 1973

p. 68.

New York Times

14 Aug 1970

p. 18.

New York Times

26 Dec 1971.

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New York Times

30 Jul 1973

p. 30.

New York Times

17 Dec 1973

p. 59.

New Yorker

24 Dec 1973.

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Newsweek

17 Dec 1973.

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Publishers Weekly

20 Apr 1970.

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Rolling Stone

31 Jan 1974.

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Variety

12 Dec 1973

p. 16.

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