Not to be confused with Informatics.
"IT" redirects here. For other uses, see IT (disambiguation).
"Infotech" redirects here. For the Indian company, see Infotech Enterprises.
Information technology (IT) is the application of computers to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered to be a subset of information and communications technology (ICT). In , Zuppo proposed an ICT hierarchy where each hierarchy level "contain[s] some degree of commonality in that they are related to technologies that facilitate the transfer of information and various types of electronically mediated communications".
The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several industries are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, and e-commerce.[a]
Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating, and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about BC, but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a article published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT)." Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, and the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs.
Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical (BC– AD), mechanical (–), electromechanical (–), and electronic (–present). This article focuses on the most recent period (electronic), which began in about
History of computer technology
Main article: History of computing hardware
Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, probably initially in the form of a tally stick. The Antikythera mechanism, dating from about the beginning of the first century BC, is generally considered to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer, and the earliest known geared mechanism. Comparable geared devices did not emerge in Europe until the 16th century,[according to whom?] and it was not until that the first mechanical calculator capable of performing the four basic arithmetical operations was developed.:3
Electronic computers, using either relays or valves, began to appear in the early s. The electromechanical Zuse Z3, completed in , was the world's first programmable computer, and by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine. Colossus, developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages was the first electronicdigital computer. Although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task. It also lacked the ability to store its program in memory; programming was carried out using plugs and switches to alter the internal wiring.[pageneeded] The first recognisably modern electronic digital stored-program computer was the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), which ran its first program on 21 June 
The development of transistors in the late s at Bell Laboratories allowed a new generation of computers to be designed with greatly reduced power consumption. The first commercially available stored-program computer, the Ferranti Mark I, contained valves and had a power consumption of 25 kilowatts. By comparison the first transistorised computer, developed at the University of Manchester and operational by November , consumed only watts in its final version.
Electronic data processing
Main article: Electronic data processing
Main article: Data storage device
Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tape, a long strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes, a technology now obsolete. Electronic data storage, which is used in modern computers, dates from World War II, when a form of delay line memory was developed to remove the clutter from radar signals, the first practical application of which was the mercury delay line.:1 The first random-access digital storage device was the Williams tube, based on a standard cathode ray tube, but the information stored in it and delay line memory was volatile in that it had to be continuously refreshed, and thus was lost once power was removed. The earliest form of non-volatile computer storage was the magnetic drum, invented in  and used in the Ferranti Mark 1, the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer.
IBM introduced the first hard disk drive in , as a component of their RAMAC computer system.:6 Most digital data today is still stored magnetically on hard disks, or optically on media such as CD-ROMs.:4–5 Until most information was stored on analog devices, but that year digital storage capacity exceeded analog for the first time. As of almost 94% of the data stored worldwide was held digitally: 52% on hard disks, 28% on optical devices and 11% on digital magnetic tape. It has been estimated that the worldwide capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from less than 3 exabytes in to exabytes in , doubling roughly every 3 years.
Main article: Database
Database management systems emerged in the s:2 to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data accurately and quickly. One of the earliest such systems was IBM's Information Management System (IMS),:2 which is still widely deployed more than 50 years later. IMS stores data hierarchically,:2 but in the s Ted Codd proposed an alternative relational storage model based on set theory and predicate logic and the familiar concepts of tables, rows and columns. The first commercially available relational database management system (RDBMS) was available from Oracle in :3
All database management systems consist of a number of components that together allow the data they store to be accessed simultaneously by many users while maintaining its integrity. A characteristic of all databases is that the structure of the data they contain is defined and stored separately from the data itself, in a database schema.:2
The extensible markup language (XML) has become a popular format for data representation in recent years. Although XML data can be stored in normal file systems, it is commonly held in relational databases to take advantage of their "robust implementation verified by years of both theoretical and practical effort".:2 As an evolution of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), XML's text-based structure offers the advantage of being both machine and human-readable.:4
The relational database model introduced a programming-language independent Structured Query Language (SQL), based on relational algebra.
The terms "data" and "information" are not synonymous. Anything stored is data, but it only becomes information when it is organized and presented meaningfully.:1–9 Most of the world's digital data is unstructured, and stored in a variety of different physical formats:2[b] even within a single organization. Data warehouses began to be developed in the s to integrate these disparate stores. They typically contain data extracted from various sources, including external sources such as the Internet, organized in such a way as to facilitate decision support systems (DSS).:4–6
Data transmission has three aspects: transmission, propagation, and reception. It can be broadly categorized as broadcasting, in which information is transmitted unidirectionally downstream, or telecommunications, with bidirectional upstream and downstream channels.
XML has been increasingly employed as a means of data interchange since the early s,:xiii particularly for machine-oriented interactions such as those involved in web-oriented protocols such as SOAP,:4 describing "data-in-transit rather than data-at-rest".:xiii One of the challenges of such usage is converting data from relational databases into XML Document Object Model (DOM) structures.–31
Hilbert and Lopez identify the exponential pace of technological change (a kind of Moore's law): machines' application-specific capacity to compute information per capita roughly doubled every 14 months between and ; the per capita capacity of the world's general-purpose computers doubled every 18 months during the same two decades; the global telecommunication capacity per capita doubled every 34 months; the world's storage capacity per capita required roughly 40 months to double (every 3 years); and per capita broadcast information has doubled every years.
Massive amounts of data are stored worldwide every day, but unless it can be analysed and presented effectively it essentially resides in what have been called data tombs: "data archives that are seldom visited".:5 To address that issue, the field of data mining– "the process of discovering interesting patterns and knowledge from large amounts of data":8– emerged in the late s.:xxiii
In an academic context, the Association for Computing Machinery defines IT as "undergraduate degree programs that prepare students to meet the computer technology needs of business, government, healthcare, schools, and other kinds of organizations IT specialists assume responsibility for selecting hardware and software products appropriate for an organization, integrating those products with organizational needs and infrastructure, and installing, customizing, and maintaining those applications for the organization’s computer users."
Commercial and employment perspective
Companies in the information technology field are often discussed as a group as the "tech sector" or the "tech industry".
In a business context, the Information Technology Association of America has defined information technology as "the study, design, development, application, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems".[pageneeded] The responsibilities of those working in the field include network administration, software development and installation, and the planning and management of an organization's technology life cycle, by which hardware and software are maintained, upgraded and replaced.
The business value of information technology lies in the automation of business processes, provision of information for decision making, connecting businesses with their customers, and the provision of productivity tools to increase efficiency.
Employment distribution of computer systems design and related services, 
Employment in the computer systems and design related services industry, in thousands, 
Occupational growth and wages in computer systems design and related services, 
Projected percent change in employment in selected occupations in computer systems design and related services, 
Projected average annual percent change in output and employment in selected industries, 
Main article: Information ethics
The field of information ethics was established by mathematician Norbert Wiener in the s.:9 Some of the ethical issues associated with the use of information technology include:–21
- Breaches of copyright by those downloading files stored without the permission of the copyright holders
- Employers monitoring their employees' emails and other Internet usage
- Unsolicited emails
- Hackers accessing online databases
- Web sites installing cookies or spyware to monitor a user's online activities
- ^Daintith, John, ed. (), "IT", A Dictionary of Physics, Oxford University Press, retrieved 1 August (subscription required)
- ^"Free on-line dictionary of computing (FOLDOC)". Retrieved 9 February
- ^Zuppo, Colrain M., Defining ICT in a Boundaryless World: The Development of a Working Hierarchy(PDF), International Journal of Managing Information Technology (IJMIT), p.19, retrieved 13 February
- ^Chandler, Daniel; Munday, Rod, "Information technology", A Dictionary of Media and Communication (first ed.), Oxford University Press, retrieved 1 August , (Subscription required (help)),
- ^Ralston, Anthony; Hemmendinger, David; Reilly, Edwin D., eds. (), Encyclopedia of Computer Science (4th ed.), Nature Publishing Group, ISBN
- ^ abButler, Jeremy G., A History of Information Technology and Systems, University of Arizona, retrieved 2 August
- ^Leavitt, Harold J.; Whisler, Thomas L. (), "Management in the s", Harvard Business Review, 11
- ^Schmandt-Besserat, Denise (), "Decipherment of the earliest tablets", Science, (): –85, doi/science, PMID(subscription required)
- ^Wright, Michael T. (), "The Front Dial of the Antikythera Mechanism", in Koetsier, Teun; Ceccarelli, Marco, Explorations in the History of Machines and Mechanisms: Proceedings of HMM, Springer, pp.–, ISBN
- ^Chaudhuri, P. Pal (), Computer Organization and Design, PHI Learning, ISBN
- ^Lavington, Simon (), Early British Computers, Digital Press, ISBN
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- ^Cooke-Yarborough, E. H. (June ), "Some early transistor applications in the UK", Engineering and Science Education Journal, IEE, 7 (3): –, doi/esej, ISSN, retrieved 7 June (subscription required)
- ^Alavudeen, A.; Venkateshwaran, N. (), Computer Integrated Manufacturing, PHI Learning, ISBN
- ^Lavington, Simon (), A History of Manchester Computers (2nd ed.), The British Computer Society, ISBN
- ^"Early computers at Manchester University", Resurrection, The Computer Conservation Society, 1 (4), Summer , ISSN, retrieved 19 April
- ^Universität Klagenfurt (ed.), "Magnetic drum", Virtual Exhibitions in Informatics, retrieved 21 August
- ^The Manchester Mark 1, University of Manchester, archived from the original on 21 November , retrieved 24 January
- ^Khurshudov, Andrei (), The Essential Guide to Computer Data Storage: From Floppy to DVD, Prentice Hall, ISBN
- ^Wang, Shan X.; Taratorin, Aleksandr Markovich (), Magnetic Information Storage Technology, Academic Press, ISBN
- ^Wu, Suzanne, "How Much Information Is There in the World?", USC News, University of Southern California, retrieved 10 September
- ^ abcHilbert, Martin; López, Priscila (1 April ), "The World's Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information", Science, (): 60–65, doi/science, PMID, retrieved 10 September
- ^"Americas events- Video animation on The World's Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information from to ". The Economist. Archived from the original on 18 January
- ^ abcdeWard, Patricia; Dafoulas, George S. (), Database Management Systems, Cengage Learning EMEA, ISBN
- ^Olofson, Carl W. (October ), A Platform for Enterprise Data Services(PDF), IDC, retrieved 7 August
- ^ abcdePardede, Eric (), Open and Novel Issues in XML Database Applications, Information Science Reference, ISBN
- ^Kedar, Seema (), Database Management Systems, Technical Publications, ISBN
- ^van der Aalst, Wil M. P. (), Process Mining: Discovery, Conformance and Enhancement of Business Processes, Springer, ISBN
- ^Dyché, Jill (), Turning Data Into Information With Data Warehousing, Addison Wesley, ISBN
- ^Weik, Martin (), Computer Science and Communications Dictionary, 2, Springer, ISBN
- ^Lewis, Bryn (), "Extraction of XML from Relational Databases", in Chaudhri, Akmal B.; Djeraba, Chabane; Unland, Rainer; Lindner, Wolfgang, XML-Based Data Management and Multimedia Engineering– EDBT Workshops, Springer, ISBN
- ^ abcHan, Jiawei; Kamber, Micheline; Pei, Jian (), Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques (3rd ed.), Morgan Kaufmann, ISBN
- ^The Joint Task Force for Computing Curricula Computing Curricula The Overview Report (pdf)Archived 21 October at the Wayback Machine.
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- ^Proctor, K. Scott (), Optimizing and Assessing Information Technology: Improving Business Project Execution, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN
- ^ abcdeLauren Csorny (9 April ). "Careers in the growing field of information technology services: Beyond the Numbers: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics". ljspe.unas.cz.
- ^Bynum, Terrell Ward (), "Norbert Wiener and the Rise of Information Ethics", in van den Hoven, Jeroen; Weckert, John, Information Technology and Moral Philosophy, Cambridge University Press, ISBN
- ^Reynolds, George (), Ethics in Information Technology, Cengage Learning, ISBN
- Allen, T., and M. S. Morton, eds. Information Technology and the Corporation of the s. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Gitta, Cosmas and South, David (). Southern Innovator Magazine Issue 1: Mobile Phones and Information Technology: United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation. ISSN
- Gleick, James ().The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood. New York: Pantheon Books.
- Price, Wilson T. (), Introduction to Computer Data Processing, Holt-Saunders International Editions, ISBN
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- Webster, Frank, and Robins, Kevin. (). Information Technology– A Luddite Analysis. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
- ^On the later more broad application of the term IT, Keary comments: "In its original application 'information technology' was appropriate to describe the convergence of technologies with application in the broad field of data storage, retrieval, processing, and dissemination. This useful conceptual term has since been converted to what purports to be concrete use, but without the reinforcement of definition the term IT lacks substance when applied to the name of any function, discipline, or position."
- ^"Format" refers to the physical characteristics of the stored data such as its encoding scheme; "structure" describes the organisation of that data.
Information Technology Essay
Information technology is a rapidly growing part of today's society. It affects everyone's life in many aspects. Every human endeavor is influenced by information technology and the increasing rate at which what it can perform includes. One area of human endeavor that information technology has greatly influenced is the practice of medicine, specifically veterinary medicine. Not only has veterinary medicine been influenced by information technology, it has also been enhanced by it. The degree to which the practice of veterinary medicine includes information technology is observable at the Animal Emergency Clinic of Central New York on Erie Blvd. in Syracuse, New York.
Section I: veterinary medicine.
Doctors of veterinary medicine are the…show more content…
Working, volunteering and interning are all acceptable ways to gain experience in the field of veterinary medicine. The reason behind schools requiring experience is to ensure that the student knows what they are getting into before they spend thousands of dollars (approx. $20,/yr.) and at least four years of their life in an extremely intensive academic environment. Many people have an altered idea of what being a vet is about. A lot of physical and emotion endurance is necessary to be a successful veterinarian. Many people are unaware of that.
The specific undergraduate course requirements to get into a school of veterinary medicine vary between the schools. All of them are science intensive. Most require a well-rounded education. The University of California at Davis school of veterinary medicine requires one year of general biology, one year of general chemistry, one year of organic chemistry, and one year of physics as far as lower division requirements. Upper division requirements include a semester of biochemistry, a semester of systemic physiology, a semester of vertebrate embryology, and a semester of genetics. On top of that they want their applicants to have taken courses in English composition, humanities, social sciences as well as statistics. Simply taking these courses is not enough, they need to be completed with a GPA above a However, the competition has an average GPA of The